Example of polar area chart showing causes of mortality among soldiers by month during Crimean war. Image from Wikimedia

by George Taniwaki

May 12 is International Nurses Day to recognize the contribution nurses make and to celebrate the birth of Florence Nightingale. Today marks the 200th anniversary of her birth. The World Health Organization named this year the Year of the nurse and midwife in her honor. Certainly, with the Covid-19 pandemic in full force, 2020 will be remembered as the Year of the nurse for many years to come.

Ms Nightingale, who was born in Florence, Italy was the founder of the modern nursing profession. Prior to her efforts, nursing was a volunteer activity, most often undertaken by untrained family members, soldiers, or religious members. Ms Nightingale trained nurses during the Crimean War. She later founded the first secular nursing school and published many nursing textbooks.

In addition to advancing nursing in a clinical setting, Ms Nightingale was a social activist who advocated for more government spending on healthcare for the poor. She helped develop the field of public health nursing to reach patients who were poor and sick at home.

Finally, Ms Nightingale was an incredible statistician and a pioneer in data visualization. She kept thorough notes and documented which treatments worked and which did not, making it possible for others to replicate her results. She popularized a type of pie chart that she called a coxcomb (see image above) and is now known as a polar area chart. She was the first woman elected to the Royal Statistical Society and became an honorary member of the American Statistical Association.