by George Taniwaki
The short answer is yes. The long answer is complex and interesting. (Well, it’s interesting if you are a statistics geek like me.)
First, some good news. Most of the available data indicates that live kidney donors lead long healthy lives. Studies show that they live longer than the general population. For instance, see Transpl. Oct 1997 and New Engl. J. Med. Jan 2009. This is not an unexpected result and does not mean that donating a kidney will lengthen your life. Instead, it is probably a result of the fact that kidney donors are screened for good health (called selection bias) and are healthier than the general population, and thus more likely to live longer.
Survival rate of kidney donors is similar to general population. Image from New Engl J Med
A more meaningful comparison would be to look at longevity of kidney donors compared to a stratified sample of the general population controlled for age, income, gender, geography, medical history, and access to health care (or health insurance). Such a study would be difficult to conduct. That’s because neither hospitals nor the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) do a good job of tracking kidney donors after surgery. They do a better job of tracking recipients. So the data on the long-term outcomes of donors is sparse.
Donating a kidney does expose donors to several near-term risks that may shorten their lives. A study in J. Amer. Med. Assoc. Mar 2010 shows that in the 90 days after a donation, the mortality rate was 3.1 per 10,000 for donors compared to 0.4 per 10,000 for a control group. A good summary of these risks is provided by the Mayo Clinic and by the National Kidney Foundation. Actual risks may vary and donors should discuss them with the transplant surgeon. However, the risks are small, especially when compared to the great benefits that will be experienced by the recipients. Not all researchers are quite as sanguine. A note in Clinical J. Amer. Soc. Nephr. Jul 2006 cautions that more studies are needed.
For the long-term, the risk of premature death are low. The same JAMA study cited above shows the long-term survival is excellent. The risk of death was the same or lower than for the control group after five years (0.4% vs. 0.9%) and after 12 years (1.5% vs. 2.9%), respectively.
There is one risk that is correlated with kidney donation that is very odd and deserves additional investigation by epidemiologists. Specifically, it appears that kidney donors are more likely than the general population to develop end stage renal disease (ESRD). My friend, Ken Klima at Hebert Research, heard this surprising finding in a UWTV lecture entitled Understanding a Chronic Killer: Kidney Disease, Part 1 (additional kidney related videos are also available). The data is reported in a rather shocking manner by Wendell Fleet a professor of nephrology at the UWMC, which is where I am expecting to have my surgery. At 34:40 into the video, he says:
“If you donate one of your kidneys to a loved one, or in a fit of philanthropic zeal to a total stranger (audience laughs), you may wear out your kidney. We initially told people you only need one, ‘give it up and save someone’s life.’ So we followed those people and in a few of them the creatinine levels inch up. A few have required renal replacement therapy. They wore out their remaining kidney. On the positive side, you go directly to the top of the list for a transplant yourself if you give someone a kidney (audience laughs).”
Dr. Fleet may be referring to data from various studies, such as one reported in Transpl. Nov 2002 or Transpl. Proc. June 2008 (subscription required), that show that among patients undergoing living donor nephrectomies, about 0.35% developed ESRD compared to 0.25% for the general population. Although this is a difference of only 0.10%, it represents a huge increase of 40% (=0.10/0.25). Am I putting myself at risk for kidney disease by donating my kidney?
I don’t think so. I have a guess as to what’s really happening. Susceptibility to kidney disease is partially hereditary, as are other chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension that are correlated with ESRD. Since historically a majority of kidney donors are family members of the recipient, they may have also inherited the genes that cause ESRD. A similar conclusion is stated in an editorial in the Nephr. Dialy. Transpl. May 2003. Again, a more complete analysis would compare rates of ESRD correcting for age, income, gender, geography, access to medical care, and medical history (especially a family history of ESRD).
For more information on becoming a kidney donor, see my Kidney donor guide.
[Update1: I added a link to a study that questions the low medical risks reported for live kidney donors.]
[Update2: I added a link to a new JAMA study.]
[Update3: An Aug 2010 blog post contains additional findings on the safety of kidney donation.]